Emacs: colour theory and techniques used in the Modus themes

In a previous report on the development of the Modus themes, I analysed how I picked bespoke colours for the avy package and related faces. The draft included a section on colour theory, but I ultimately decided to delete it and dedicate a standalone post on this subject.

As you probably know by now, the modus-themes are designed in accordance with the WCAG AAA standard for colour contrast, which represents a minimum contrast ratio of 7:1 in relative luminance between any given combination of background and foreground colour values. In simple terms, the themes are designed to be highly legible.

What is not obvious and what I don’t often bring attention to is the knowledge that informs the choice of colours. Getting the 7:1 contrast is but a small part of the design. Without understanding how colours work, which combinations are optimal and for what purpose, the result will always leave something to be desired.

What follows is a primer. It does not exhaust the topic, though it should give you an idea of the sort of knowledge that underpins this project.

Primary colours

For our purposes, the three basic colours are red, green, and blue. They are known as “primary colours” because we can combine them to derive all other values but they cannot be derived from others.

In hexadecimal Red-Green-Blue (RGB) notation, the primary colours represent the three channels of light in the form of #RRGGBB, with each digit accepting a value of [0-9a-f]. The #ff0000 is the purest red, as the red channel of light is at its maximum while the other two are empty. Similarly, #00ff00 is pure green and #0000ff is pure blue.

Secondary colours

If we imagine the primary colours as a triangle, we can then derive combinations on each of its sides. Drawing figures is not my strong point, but here is the idea:

      red
     /   \
    /     \
green-----blue

Red and green produce yellow. This is represented as #ffff00. Just by looking at the hex code, we can see the full channel of red and green, which is exactly what we did by combining the two primary colours.

Red and blue constitute magenta. This is expressed as #ff00ff.

While green and blue create cyan, else #00ffff.

yellow-----magenta
     \    /
      \  /
      cyan

Putting it all together produces a hexagon:

         red
       /     \
      /       \
 yellow       magenta
     |         |
     |         |
 green         blue
      \       /
       \     /
        cyan

By continuing to combine adjacent colours we end up with a circle, which is also known as a “colour wheel”.

The spectrum of all those colours can eventually be split in to two parts: the side which includes cyan-green, green, green-yellow, yellow, yellow-red, and red is the “warm” side, while the other is the “cold” one (or “cool”, if you will). More on this point below.

Luminance of the primary and secondary colours

To get a sense of how those basic values compare to pure black and white (#000000 and #ffffff, respectively), we rely on the WCAG formula. The modus-themes-wcag-formula and modus-themes-contrast functions handle the technicalities:

;; This is the WCAG formula: https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/G18.html
(defun modus-themes-wcag-formula (hex)
  "Get WCAG value of color value HEX.
The value is defined in hexadecimal RGB notation, such as those in
`modus-themes-operandi-colors' and `modus-themes-vivendi-colors'."
  (cl-loop for k in '(0.2126 0.7152 0.0722)
           for x in (color-name-to-rgb hex)
           sum (* k (if (<= x 0.03928)
                        (/ x 12.92)
                      (expt (/ (+ x 0.055) 1.055) 2.4)))))

;;;###autoload
(defun modus-themes-contrast (c1 c2)
  "Measure WCAG contrast ratio between C1 and C2.
C1 and C2 are color values written in hexadecimal RGB."
  (let ((ct (/ (+ (modus-themes-wcag-formula c1) 0.05)
               (+ (modus-themes-wcag-formula c2) 0.05))))
    (max ct (/ ct))))

With the help of Org tables (or just orgtbl-mode), we get these contrast ratios:

| Name    |         | #ffffff | #000000 |
|---------+---------+---------+---------|
| red     | #ff0000 |    4.00 |    5.25 |
| yellow  | #ffff00 |    1.07 |   19.56 |
| green   | #00ff00 |    1.37 |   15.30 |
| cyan    | #00ffff |    1.25 |   16.75 |
| blue    | #0000ff |    8.59 |    2.44 |
| magenta | #ff00ff |    3.14 |    6.70 |
#+TBLFM: $3='(modus-themes-contrast $2 @1$3);%0.2f :: $4='(modus-themes-contrast $2 @1$4);%0.2f

By studying the values, we observe some interesting patterns:

  • Blue has a contrast ratio well above 7:1 when compared to white. This means that blue is inherently a dark colour and so it always contrasts well with white. Because of this property, blue has a very low luminance relative to black.
  • Green, and every colour that has the full contribution of the green channel of light, is inherently luminant. We can see how green, yellow, and cyan almost have a 1:1 contrast with white and a very high contrast against black (the highest is black:white of 21:1—yellow is almost 20:1).
  • Red lies somewhere in between blue and green. It fails the 7:1 test against both black and white.

The WCAG formula assigns a weight to each of the three channels of light. While I do not know the exact method, my experience suggests this is the right approach. We can see the weights in this part of the above snippet:

;; The respective weight of red, green, blue
'(0.2126 0.7152 0.0722)

In practical terms, what this means is that a high dose of blue has a negligible effect on the overall luminance of the resulting colour, while a small dose of green has a noticeable impact, and red is somewhere in the middle.

Because of the 7:1 threshold, our values cannot be like those of the primary and secondary colours. We have to find permutations between the extremes. In doing so, we need to calibrate hex codes to get the desired results. This is easy to do once we understand how the channels of light determine the luminance of the value we choose (of course, they also affect the hue and saturation, but let’s keep it simple).

The cyan-blue-magenta side of the spectrum

The colours we use the most are concentrated on the “cold” side of the spectrum. These predominantly are variants of cyan, blue, and magenta. Calling them “cold” is not accurate and not true to the contextual subjectivity of colour, but it serves as a banal metaphor to capture the overall character of the themes.

What I mean by “contextual subjectivity” is how we perceive differences in colour in any given case. For instance, magenta is a cold colour in absolute terms because it has contribution from the blue channel of light. But in a context where all colours are variants of blue, a single magenta will stand out as the warmest.

Furthermore, each colour can be conceptualised as having its own cold and warm variants. This is why in the themes we have triplets of red, green, blue, yellow, magenta, and cyan like the palette variables magenta, magenta-alt (warmer), magenta-alt-other (colder). Use the command modus-themes-list-colors (or modus-themes-list-colors-current) to produce a preview of the entire palette of either modus-operandi or modus-vivendi.

At any rate, the reason we apply such colours has to do with the relative weight of the three channels of light in tandem with the need for variety in the effective palette.

Quote from the themes’ manual on the matter:

[By studying the table with the contrast ratios of the primary and secondary colours] We can then infer that red and blue, in different combinations, with green acting as calibrator for luminance, will give us fairly moderate colors that pass the 7:1 target. Blue with a bit of green produce appropriate variants of cyan. Similarly, blue combined with some red and hints of green give us suitable shades of purple.

Due to the need of maintaining some difference in hueness between adjacent colors, it is not possible to make red, green, and yellow the main colors, because blue cannot be used to control their luminance and, thus the relevant space will shrink considerably.

This, however, is not a mere matter of convenience. These colours also look consistent, which brings us to the next point.

Harmony in colour combinations

Remember that hexagon I drew earlier and how I wrote it can be extended to become a circle? We can use it as a mental image with which to derive colour harmonies. There are five basic ways to think of harmonious relations:

  • monochromatic, which uses values from the same part of the spectrum (e.g. only blues);
  • analogous, which encompasses values from a continuum of hues in the spectrum (e.g. cyan, blue, purple);
  • complementary, which consists of colours on opposite sides of the spectrum (e.g. blue and yellow, red and cyan);
  • triadic, which covers three colours that form a triangle inside the spectrum (e.g. cyan-magenta-yellow);
  • tetradic, which is made up of two pairs of complementary values and can be drawn as a rectangle inside the spectrum.

Depending on the context, we use all those harmonies, with the analogous being the most common one. Note though that this is not a hard-and-fast rule, as we sometimes may have a “mostly” analogous style, where all colours look similar except one which stands out a bit more (because the requirements of the interface demand as much—for example, the “unread” tag in the email listing of notmuch.el).

Complementarity is tricky to manage. Its wanton use is, in my opinion, a sign of an incomplete or needlessly overdone theme. This is because complementary colours stand out more, ceteris paribus. When everything tries to call unwarranted attention to itself, it implicitly expends the user’s energy on trivialities. Add to that typographic qualities like bold weight and italics, and you have a cacophony of visual noise.

Complementarity is important though and essential in the appropriate context. In the modus-themes we rely on it when we need to draw a clear distinction between two adjacent elements (“need” is the operative term).

Triadic and tetradic relations are seldom required, but knowledge of them saves us from trouble. A case in point is the cyan-magenta-yellow triplet I established for the Avy colours (check the link in the introduction). That is a triadic relation and those happen to be the secondary colours.

Note though that I do not use an actual colour wheel. My understanding of it is in abstract. As such, when I claim that the variants of cyan-magenta-yellow that are used for Avy are triadic, I do not mean it in the rigorous mathematical sense of them representing an actual triangle. Because themes are not colour schemes, we have to consider the function of colour: I decided to make one a bit more saturated than the others to help guide the eye to where it needs to focus first. As such, mathematical precision is not the goal. Same principle for complementary colours and all the other harmonies.

The visual rhythm

I cannot quantify this “rhythm”. Theme development stands at the intersection of art and science. Consider this the artistic part, the je ne sais quoi that defines the project.

I see the rhythm as a variation in levels of luminance, hueness, and saturation between the applicable colours. Put simply, not all colours have a 7:1 contrast, as that would make them all look about the same. It would be dull and monotonous. Some are a bit more luminant than others. Such subtle changes help guide the eye to where it needs to focus.

Additional considerations here involve typographic attributes but also the placement of text in the buffer. Once again, themes are not colour schemes, meaning that we must consider the particularities of text and concomitant functionality in any given interface.

We never want to make exaggerations, because their cumulative effect will burden the user. We use complementary colours when it is absolutely necessary. We avoid clustering intense colours and, generally, try to give attention to whichever construct truly deserves it.

The key is to actually test how colours work in practice when applied to text. Do we get something usable? Or do we have a gestalt form that constantly reminds the user “hey, look how pretty I am!”? We want the design to help the user. Nothing more, nothing less.

Finally, we do not control the placement of faces. We simply specify their attributes. It is the task of the underlying code (e.g. major or minor mode) to map faces to constructs. As such, we don’t always get the perfect or most desirable outcome, though we at least try to approximate it.